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Cytokines are produced by a broad range of cells, including immune cells like macrophages, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes and mast cells, as well as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and various stromal cells; a given cytokine may be produced by more than one type of cell.
They act through receptors, and are especially important in the immune system; cytokines modulate the balance between humoral and cell-based immune responses, and they regulate the maturation, growth, and responsiveness of particular cell populations.
M) concentrations that can increase up to 1,000-fold during trauma or infection.
The widespread distribution of cellular sources for cytokines may be a feature that differentiates them from hormones.
Dysregulation of this tendency is under intensive study for its possible role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders.
Several inflammatory cytokines are induced by oxidative stress.
Some cytokines enhance or inhibit the action of other cytokines in complex ways.
It can be said that cytokines are involved in autocrine signalling, paracrine signalling and endocrine signalling as immunomodulating agents.
Within the 8 major markets, RA affects more than 6 million individuals and the number is expected to rise to nearly 7 million by 2025.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 k Da) that are important in cell signalling.
In 1969 Dudley Dumonde proposed the term "lymphokine" to describe proteins secreted from lymphocytes and later, proteins derived from macrophages and monocytes in culture were called "monokines".
As scientists learned more, it was understood that these proteins and others were part of a broader class of proteins involved in self-defense, and should be called "cytokines".
cites some of the major growth drivers, which includes an increase of prevalent RA cases, the anticipated introduction of interleukin-6 inhibitors, the launch and continued uptake of biosimilars for all established biologics on the market, and the early diagnosis and treatment of patients with RA to limit progression, according to .